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DoDD, Mead & Company's 
Facsimile Reprints of Rare Books 

Historical Series^ No, I 

Hariot's ^^ Virginia," 1588 

^his Edition is limited to Five Hundred and 'Twenty 
Copies y of which Twenty are on Japan paper 

A Briefe and True Report of 
the New Found Land 




Thomas Hariot 

Reproduced in Facsimile. ivom the First 
Edition of 1588 

TVith an Introductory Note by 
Luther S. Livingston 





Introductory Note 

THE earliest printed original book in the English 
language relating to the region now comprised 
within the limits of the United States is Thomas 
Hariot's Brief e and True Report of the New Found Land of 
Virginia^ which is reproduced in facsimile on the succeed- 
ing pages, from the original quarto edition of 1588. It is 
not (as it has been called) the history of the first settle- 
ment, but is instead the report of the skilled surveyor and 
mathematician sent out with the colonists by the owners 
of the grant for the express purpose of studying the country 
and its capabilities for settlement. It was written and 
printed with the view of inducing men of capital to become 
stockholders in the corporation, and for persuading settlers 
to emigrate to the regions described, and is one of the 
earliest examples of a statistical survey on a large scale. 
Being the account of the resources of the country, and of 
its Indian inhabitants, its text is more interesting than the 
more narrative-like report of the President of the Colony 
which is printed in Hakluyt's Voyages and which, with this 
book, comprises about all that is known from first hands 
of that " First Colonie." The actual narrative of the 
Expedition prepared by Hariot himself, and which he said 
was " ready in a discourse by it self in maner of a Chronicle 
according to the course of times, and when time shall bee 
thought convenient shall be also published " is, unfortunately, 

Only seven copies of the book can be traced, and of 
these four are in public libraries. One is in the Grenville 
collection, in the British Museum, one in the Bodleian 

Introductory Note 

Library at Oxford, and one in the University of Leyden. 
A fourth is in the collection formed by the late Henry 
Huth, and a fifth is, or was, in the collection of the late 
Lord Taunton. Two copies are in America, one in the 
New York Public Library, Lenox Collection, and the 
other, the copy from which this reprint is made, in 
private hands. This copy may, with some probability, be 
called Sir Francis Drake's. It was sold at auction in 1883 
with other books from a library said to have been brought 
together by him. It is possible, however, that the collec- 
tion, as such, dates no farther back than the time of his 
nephew, who published Sir Francis Drake Revived^ in 1626. 
It was bought by the late Mr. Quaritch for ;^300. He 
catalogued it at ;^335 and sold it, probably at that price, to 
the late Mr. Charles H. Kalbfleisch. Since the death of 
the latter it passed into the collection of Mr. Marshall C. 
LefFerts and, recently, through the hands of two book- 
sellers, into the library of Mr. E. D. Church, of New 

Few of the older bibliographers seem to have known of 
the book and the earliest bibliographical record we can find 
of it is as Number 1345 of Part IX of the Catalogue of the 
Heber Collection. This ninth part was sold on April 11, 
and thirteen following days, Sundays excepted, 1836. 

The book is described as " Fine copy, in russia." In 
addition to the transcription of the title, the catalogue 
contains this note : 

*^* Excessively rare. It is not to be traced in any Catalogue, 
and does not appear to be mentioned by any Bibliographer. It con- 
tains 24 leaves, including the Title and Dedication by Rafe Lane. 

The volume sold for £'^^ los. 

Ternaux in 1837 entered the title in his Bihliotheque 
Americaine^ but does not say where he obtained his informa- 
tion regarding it. 

Payne and Foss, who prepared the catalogue of the 
Grenville Collection in the British Museum printed in 
1842, enter it, curiously enough, under De Bry, instead of 


Introductory Note 

under the author's name. They add also the following 
note : 

*<This forms the first part of the Voyages to the West Indies or 
Grands Voyages. Previously to its being added to the Collection it 
was separately printed in French, and verbatim from this 4to in Eng- 
lish, in Latin, and German by De Bry at Frankfort in 1590, as here- 
after described." 

They give the collation as " Signatures A to F in fours, 
twenty-four leaves." 

Bohn, in his revision of Lowndes' Bibliographer'' s Manual^ 
follows the Grenville Catalogue exactly, and enters it under 
De Bry, and gives the same collation. These authors knew 
of only two copies, the British Museum and the Bodleian. 
Graesse enters it properly under Hariot, gives the collation 
as twenty-four leaves, and quotes the Heber Catalogue. 
He does not record any other copy. None of these authors 
points out the fact that the last leaf is blank. 

Sabin in his Bihliotheca Americana^ gives the collation 
simply as " 23 leaves." He knew of three copies, the 
British Museum, Bodleian, and Lenox. He mentions 
another copy, however, as having been sold in Dublin in 
1873 " ^^^ ^^^ other rare pieces relating to America, for 
less than £2^/' If this is true and the copy is still in 
existence it must make an eighth copy, unless it chance that 
the Dublin copy may be the one now in the Huth collection, 
which, however, we think is the Heber copy. Brunet cites 
the book properly, taking his title from the Heber catalogue. 

Henry Stevens, in his Recollections of James Lenox^ gives 
the following anecdote about the Lenox copy : 

" Mr. Lenox was principled against raffles, wagers, 
lotteries, and games of chance generally, but I once led him 
into a sort of bet in this way, by which I won from him 
£\. I had acquired a fair copy of that gem of rare books, 
the quarto edition of Harlot's Briefe and true report of the 
new found land of Virginia^ London, Feb. 1588, wanting 
four leaves in the body of the book. These I had very 
skilfully traced by Harris, transferred to stone, printed off 


Introductory Note 

on old paper of a perfect match, the book and these leaves 
sized and coloured alike, and bound in morocco by Bedford. 
The volume was then sent to Mr. Lenox to be examined 
by him de visu^ the price to be £2S ', but if he could detect 
the four facsimile leaves, and would point them out to me 
without error, the price was to be reduced to £21. By the 
first post after the book was received he remitted me the 
twenty guineas, with a list of the facsimiles. But on my 
informing him that two of his facsimiles were originals, he 
immediately remitted the four pounds and acknowledged 
his defeat." 

About 16 18 William Strachey, first secretary of the 
Jamestown Colony, prepared a Historie of Travaile into 
Virginia Britannia^ which existed only in manuscript until it 
was printed by the Hakluyt Society in 1849. ^^ contains 
this reference to Hariot and, being by a contemporary of 
his, is worthy of insertion here. 

" Our country of Virginia hath no want of many 
marchandize (which we in England accomplish in Den- 
mark, Norway, Prusia, Poland, etc ; fetch far, and buy 
deare) which advaunce much, and assured increase, with 
lesse exchaung of our owne, with as few hazardes by sea, 
and which would maintaine as frequent and goodly a navie 
as what runs the Levant stage ; and those by divers treaties, 
both in Lattin and English, private and publique, have ben, 
in their particuler names and values oftentymes expressed, 
especyally that which hath bene published by that true lover 
of vertue and great learned professor of all arts and knowl- 
edges, Mr. Hariots, who lyved there in the tyme of the first 
colony, spake the Indian language, searcht the country, and 
made many proufes of the richness of the soyle, and 
comoditie there of." 

The first effort toward actual English colonization in 
America was the colony planned by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
under the Patent granted by Queen Elizabeth on June nth, 
1578. This grant was for six years only, unless a colony 
should be meanwhile founded, in which case it was to be 

[ viii ] 

Introductory Note 

perpetual. Two expeditions were sent out, and possession 
was taken of a portion of the island of Newfoundland, but 
no settlement was established. Gilbert having gone down 
with his ship on the return voyage in 1583, his patent was 
regranted to his half-brother Walter Raleigh. This new 
patent was dated March 25th, 1584 (the first day of the 
new year), and was also limited to six years. It gave him 
license "to discover, search, find out, and view such 
remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and terri- 
tories, not actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor 
inhabited by Christian people, as to him, his heires and 
assignes, and to every or any of them shall seeme good," 

Two ships were at once fitted out and the expedition, 
under the command of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow, 
sailed on April 27th, 1584. They reached the coast of 
Carolina in July, made some superficial examinations and 
returned to England in September. They " brought home 
also two of the Savages being lustie men, whose names 
were Wanchese and Manteo." 

The report of this first tentative expedition being favor- 
able, Raleigh made preparations to found a Colony in the 
newly discovered region. On April 9th, 1585, seven 
vessels sailed from Plymouth under the command of Sir 
Richard Grenville. They arrived safely at the island of 
Roanoke, at the north end of Pamlico Sound, where 
Amadas and Barlow had been the year before, on June 
26th. The two Indians, who had learned the white 
man's language, during their stay in England, were very 
helpful to the English in treating with the natives. Gren- 
ville himself stayed just two months and then returned to 
England, leaving a colony of one hundred and eight men, 
all of whose names are set down by Hakluyt, under the 
governorship of Ralph Lane. 

This expedition was well fitted out, and among the ^^ 
colonists were included several specialists. Thomas Hariot, jV 
who had already acquired fame as a mathematician, was r 


Introductory Note 

surveyor and historiographer/ John White, whose name is 
apparently corrupted in Hak1uyt*s list, into John Twit, was 
the artist of the expedition, and his portfolio of drawings is 
now in the British Museum. There was also a " mineral- 
man," or geologist, though he seems to be unidentified. 

This " first colonie " remained on the island of Roanoke 
and in the vicinity for almost an entire year, hearing mean- 
while nothing from home. On the 7th of June, 1586, 
a fleet of twenty-three sail was sighted off the coast. At 
first it was feared that they were Spaniards, but happily it 
turned out the next day that it was the fleet of Sir Francis 
Drake, returning victorious from the sacking of rich cities 
of the Spanish colonies. He had run up to see how the 
Virginian Colony of his friend Raleigh was prospering. He 
offered to supply them with provisions, take home their 
sick, and leave " oare-men, artificers and others " in their 
place, as well as leaving them a ship with sailing masters 
competent to navigate her home, also "a supply of calievers, 
hand weapons, match and lead, tooles, apparell, and such 
like." While these arrangements were being made a Cape 
Hatteras storm came on and continued four days, doing 
more damage to Drake's fleet "than all his former most 
honourable actions against the Spaniards." The colonists 
considered this storm as the judgment of God that they 
should return at once to England, and it was so decided. 
\The weather was still rough and in transferring their goods 
to the ships of the fleet the boats ran aground and the 
sailors cast overboard " all their Cards, Books and writ- 
■ > ( ings." Notwithstanding this statement Hariot's diary must 
)have been preserved, and John White's drawings are still in 
^existence. The one hundred and four members of the 
colony, for Hariot says that only four " died all the yeere," 
were distributed among the ships of the fleet which set sail 
on the 19th of June (being just a year, lacking one week, 
since their arrival), and reached England the latter part of 
July, 1585. 

The account of Raleigh's subsequent eflForts to found a 

Introductory Note 

colony on the coast of North Carolina, of the fifteen men 
left by Sir Richard Grenville in 1586, when he arrived with 
supplies and found the colonists gone, and of the " second 
colonic" of one hundred and nineteen, left in 1587 and all 
lost, may be found in Hakluyt, and, copied from him, in 
many more recent books. 

Raleigh's original Charter would have expired by limi- 
tation on the 24th of March, 1590. He had, however, 
been obliged to raise money to fit out White's expedition 
of 1589 by selling stock in his company. That "Assign- 
ment of Rights" is dated March 7, 1589. AVe may there- 
fore suppose, with reason, that this Report of Harlot's was 
written and printed for Raleigh to distribute among the 
friends from whom he sought aid in carrying out his schemes 
of western planting. The book was evidently privately 
printed, as it bears no name of printer or publisher, and 
was not entered at Stationers' Hall. It is, as will be seen, X 
dated "February, 1588," at the end. This, according to 
our present reckoning, would be 1589, and, as the new 
year then began on March 25th, and as the title is also 
dated 1588, we may presume that the book was printed and 
ready for distribution in the early part of 1589, perhaps as 
early as the first of March. 

A word as to Hariot, the author of the book, himself. 
He was born at Oxford in 1560, and was thus only 25 
years of age when he came to Virginia. He graduated from 
Oxford February 12, 1580, and was almost immediately 
employed by Raleigh as a tutor, having been recommended 
on account of his expert knowledge of mathematics. He 
continued to be Raleigh's best friend until Raleigh's death 
on the scaffold in 1618. He made the "last great dis- 
covery in the pure science of algebra " by arriving at a 
theory of the genesis of equations, and he shares with 
Galileo the honor of inventing the telescope (called by 
Hariot the " perspective truncke "), and of making impor- 
tant discoveries with that instrument. 

He died July 2, 1621, of cancer of the nose, the case, 


Introductory Note 

an important one, being described in the records, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Christopher, in London. 
A marble monument was erected over his grave by his 
friend, the Earl of Northumberland, the inscription on 
which has been preserved in Stow's Survey of London. 
Church and monument were destroyed in the Great Fire in 
1666. The church was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, 
but the monument was not restored. The old churchyard 
of St. Christopher is now the " Garden of the Bank of 
England," and there, in " the lovliest spot in all London," 
repose the bones of Virginia's first historian. 

A second edition of the Brief Report^ published in 1590, 
by Theodore De Bry, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, forms 
the first part of that eminent publisher's great series of voy- 
ages. It was printed in four languages, English, French, 
German, and Latin, and was illustrated with a map and a series 
of 22 plates engraved by De Bry, " the most diligentlye 
and well that wear in my possible to doe," he says, after 
the original water-colors made in Virginia by Hariot's com- 
panion, John White, afore-mentioned. This magnificent 
folio was dedicated to Raleigh and contains, in addition to 
Hariot's Report and White's illustrations, descriptions of 
the plates, apparently by White himself, but " ti:anslated out 
of Latin into English by Richard Hackluit." By whom 
the book was translated into German does not appear. 
Perhaps it was done by De Bry himself. He says that he 
" caused yt to bee Reduced into verye Good Frenche and 
Latin by the aid of verye worshipfull frend of myne." 
From the fact that the Dedication of the edition, with 
French text is dated March 24, 1590, while that in the 
English and Latin editions is April i, and of the German 
edition April 3, it is possible that the French edition was 
first issued. 

Another German translation forms the second part of a 
volume prepared for the press by Dr. Matthew Dresser, and 
published in Leipzig in 1598, with the title : 

" Historien vnd Bericht,/ Von dem Newlicher/ Zeit 


Introductory Note 

erfundenen Konigriech China,/ wie es nach vmbsienden, 
so zu einer rechtmessigen / Beschreibung gohoren, darumb/ 
beschafFen. / Item, Von dem auch new erfundenen/ Lande 
Virginia./ " Etc. 

The only adequate account of Hariot, especially of his 
lifelong connection with Raleigh, is the Life by the late 
Henry Stevens, printed in 1885, but not published until 
1900. A great quantity of his manuscript, mostly mathe- 
matical in character, is preserved in the British Museum. 

L. S. L. 

[ xiii ] 

^ A briefe and true re- 

port of the new foundJand of Virginia: of 

the commodities there found and to ho rajfed^ as wdtmar^ 
cfiantabfejas^others {brvi<auall3l)iiildingand[ otFicr nccefla* 
rh 'iJ'ferfor thofe that are and fbalhe the planters there\ and cfthe tin» 
iure and manners of the naturall inhabitants : Difcoucrecf by ibc 
EnghlhX:olo7y there fmed bj Sir- Richard Grcinuilc Kmght Wthe 

yccfc If 8y. whtctireftiamccTvndertliegouernmentorRafc llanq Efqui- 

cTt one of her MalcpUKB^^CYtlSy during tbefpacedfitfititeimnethet :ai 

the {peciall charge an^diredlonortTieTIonounible SIR 

WALTEH ft A tElGH Knight, Lord Warden of 

die ftanaericsjiivho thcrem IiatRbeehQ fauou» 

tedandaiichonfedtiy tier MoTefiicand 

Thcrlcttcrs patenta 

Directed to the Aduenturers.Fauourers, 

andWelwdlersoftheaBtonj^for' the'tnhaht^ 
tmg and planting there: 

By Thomas Har4ot^ fcruant to the aboucnamcd 

Siirff^aUer^ajnembcrofthe Cdmjj^^i 

there imflojfJLin Sj^meving^ 

Tniprintecl at London 15 8 8. 


^ Rafe Lane one of her Maiefties 

Squkres andGouernourofthe (polony in F/r- 
ginia aboue mentioned for the time tterc 

rejtdent. To the gentle Reader ^fJbcthaH 
hafpmes h the Lord. 

Lbeit (Gmtle Reader) the 
credite of the reports in this 
treatife contained, canlittk 
he furthered by the tefiimo-^ 
me of one as myfelfe, through 
affeSiion iudged farttaU^ 
^ though mthout defert^'Ne-- 
uerthelejjeforjomuch as Ihaue beene requefted byfomc 
my particular fiendsy who conceiue more rightly of 
mejto deliuer freely my hri(rwledge ofthefamei not onely 
forthejatisfyingofthemybuta^for the true enforma^ 
tionof ante other whofoeueTythut comes notmthapre^ 
indicate minde to the reading thereof: Thus much vpon 
my credit famtoaffirme: fhat thingsvniuerftlly are 
fo traelyfet downe in this treat ije by the author therof 
anAUorintheQclony^amar^noUffeforhis honejly 

t4z then 

thnlearnmgc0mmendahle:as that J darehoUely Or 

uomhitmayyeryrffelljaJfemththecTCcl&t oftruthe^ 

uen amongfithefnofitrueretatiosofthisi^JVhichds 

fir mine mm fart lam readieanywayypitb mjt ward 

toackncrppledgeyfialfo (ofthecertaintietheftofaffured 

hy tmne cmme experience) with this myfub^ 

bks affertton^ I dae affirme the fame. 


<^ TotheAduenturers,Fauourers, 


biting andfUnting in Virginia. 

^/^ \ Ince thefirft vndertaklng by 
Sir Walter Raleigh to dealc 
in the aftion of difcoucring 
of that Countrcy which is 
now called and known by the 
mmtoi f^irgini4'i many voy- 
ages hauing bin thither made 
atfimdrie times to his greac 
charge; as firft in the yeero 
1.584, and afterwardes in the yeeres 1585, ,158^, and 
now oflare this laftyeareof 1587: There bauebindi-* 
ncrs and variable reportcs with fomc flaundetous and 
fhamefull Speeches bruited abroadeby many that rewri 
ncd from thence » Especially of that difcoucry which 
was made by the Colony tranfported by Sir' Richard 
GremuJIe inthe ycare 1585, being of all the others the 
moftprincfpal and as yet of moft effedl^the time of their 
abode m the countrey beeing a wboley eare, when as in 
the other voyage before they ftaied but fixe wcekes; and 
the others after were onelie for fupply andtranfpdrta- 
tion J nothingmore being difcoucred then had been be- 
fore, Whichreports hauenotdonealitlewrotigtoma- 

eAhriefeanitrue report 

ny that othcnvife would hauc alfo fauourcd & aducntil- 
red in the aftian, to the honour and benefice ofounu-, 
tion, befides the particular profice and creditc which 
would redound to themfelues the dealers therein; as I 
hope by the fequele of cucnts to the fhame of thofe that 
haue auouched the contrary fhalbe manifcft : ify ou the 
aducnturers/auourcrSjand vvelwillersdo but cither en* 
creafe in nunaber,or in opinion continue, or hauingbia 
doubcfull renewe your good liking and furtherance to 
deale therein according to the worthinefle thereof al- 
ready c found and as you fhall vnderftand hcrcaker to 
be requifice. Touching whic h woorthines ^ough 
caufc of the diuerfitie ot relations and rcportcs^ma- 
nye of your opinions coulde not bee firmc , northc 
mindes of fome that are well difpofed^bec fetledina* 

I hauc therefore thought it good bccing one 
rfiat haue beenc in the difcouerie and in dealing with 
the naturall inhabitantes fpecially imploied 5 andba- 
uing therefore fecne and knowne more then the or- 
dinarie: to imparte fo much vnto you of the fruitcs 
of our labours , as that you may knowe howc iniuii- 
oufly the entcrprifeis (laundered • And that in pub- 
like manner at this prefcntchicfelie for two rcfpeiles, 
Firft thatfome of you which are yet ignorant or 
doubtfuU of the ftate thereof, may fee that there is 
fufficient caule why the cheefe enterprifcr with the 
fauour of her Maieftie , notwithftanding fuchc re- 
portes; hath not onclic fince continued theaflion by 
fending into the countrey againe, and replanting this 
laft ycere a new Colony, but is alfo readie, according as 
the times and mcancs will affoordc, to follow and pro- 
fccute the fame* 


of the newfound tandof Virginia. 

Secondly 3 that you Teeing and knowing the continu- 
ance of the aftion by the view hereof you may generally 
know & learnc what the countrey is, & thervpon confi- 
der how your dealing therein if it proceedc, may retumc 
you profit and gainej bee it cither by inhabiting & plan- 
ting or otherwise in furthering thereof, 

And Icaft that the fubltance of my relation (houW be 
doubtfid vnto you^as of others by reafon of their diuerfi- 
tic : I will firft open the caufe in a few wordes wherefore 
they are fodifferentj referring my felfe to your fauoura- 
b!e conftruSions^and to be adiudged of as by good con-» 
fideration you fhall finde caufc» 

Of our companie that returned fomc for their mifde- 
menour and ill dealing in the countrey , haue beenc 
there worthily punifheds who by reafon of their baddc 
naturcs^, haue malicioufly not onelic fpoken ill of 
their Gouernours; but for their fakes {laundered the 
countrie it felfe. The like alfo haucthofe doncwhich 
were of their confort. 

Somebceing ignorant of the ftatcthercof^notwith- 
ftanding fince their ret ume amongeft their friendes and 
acquaintance and alfo others, cfpecially if they were in 
companie where they might not be gainefaide; wouldc 
fcemctoknowe fo much as no men more; and make 
no men fo great trauailers as themfclues • They flood 
fomuch as it maie feemc vppon their creditc and re- 
putation thathauing been a twelue moneth in the coun- 
trey ^it wouldehaue beene a great difgrace vnto them as 
they thought, iftheycouldenot haueiaidcmuchwhe- 
therit werctrueorfaUe.Ofwhichfomehaue (pokcn of 
wore then euer they faw or othcrwife knew to bee ther^ 
otherfome haue not bin afhamed to make abfolute deni- 
allof that which although notby them^ yet by others 

A4 i& 

^briefe and true rcpon 

is nioft ccrtaindy and there plentifully knowne. And o- 
therfomc make difficulties of thofe things they hauc ng 

The caufe of their ignorance was^in that they were of 
that many that were neucroutof the Hand where wee 
wcrefcated.ornotfarre^oratthe ieaftwifein few places 
els, during the timeof ouraboadein thecountreyjorof 
that many that after goldc and filuer was not fo foonc 
found, as it was by them looked for, had little or no care 
of any other thing but to pamper their bellies, or of that 
many which had little vnderftandingjiefle difcretion, 
and more tongue then was ncedfullor requifitc. 

Some alfo were of a nice bringing vp,onIy in cities ot 
towncs, or fiich as neuer^asl may^fay; had feenethc 
world before. Becaufe there were not to bee found any 
Englifh cities, nor fuch faire hou(cs,nor at their ownc 
wifh any of their olde accuftomed daintie food, nor any 
foft beds of downc or fethers; the countrey was to them 
miferable,& their reports thereof according. 

Becaufe my purpofe was but in briefe tp open the 
caufe of the varietie of fucb fpeeches^ the partixrularities 
of them,andof many enuious, malicious, and flaunde- 
rous reports and deuifesds 3 by our ownc countrey mea' 
befides; as trifles that are not worthy of wife men to bcc 
thought vpon, I meanc not to trouble youwidiall : but 
willpafle to the commodities , the (iibftancc of that 
which Ihaue to make relation of vntoyou. 

The treatife whereof for your more readie view & ear 
/fcrvnderftandinglwilldiuidc into three (peciall parts. 
In the firfl: I will make declaration of fucb commodities 
there alrcadie found or to be raifcd, which will not onely 
fcruethe ordinary turnes of you which arc and (hall bee 
the planters and inhabitants, butfuchanoucrplus fuffi- 


of the new found land of Virgima. 

cicntly to bee yclded , or by men of skill to bcc prouidcd^ 
as by way of trafficke and exchaungc with our ownc na- 
tion of England, will enrich your lelucs the prouidcrs; 
thofc that (lial deal with you; the entcrprifers in general; 
and greatly profit our owne counircy mcn^to fupply the 
with moft things which heretofore they haue bene fainc 
to prouidceitherofftrangers or of our enemies : which 
commodities for diftinftion fake, I c^XiMerchantabU. 

In the fecondjlwill fetdowne all the commodities 
which wee know the countrcy by out experience doeth 
yeldof it fclfcfor viftualljandluftcnancc of mans life; 
fuch as is vfually fed vpo by the inhabitants of the coua- 
trcyj as alfo by vs during the time we were there. 

In the laft part I will make mention generally of fuch 
other commodities befidesjas I am able to remember, 
and as I fhall thinkc behoofull for thofe that (hall inha- 
bite^and plant there to knoweof, which fpecially con* 
ccrnc building, as alfo fome other neceffary vfes : with a 
briefedefcriptionofthe nature and mancrs of the peo- 
ple of the countrcy. 

The firftpart of Marchantable 


like ofgrajfe orgrajfe Silks. Thcrc is a kind of 
grafle in the countrey vppon the blades 
whereof there growcth very good filkein 
forme of a thin glittering fkin to bee ftript 
of It growcth two foote and a halfc high or 
better : the blades arc about two foot in length, and half 
inch broad. The like growcth in Pcrfia, which is in the 
felfe fame climate as K^^-^/W^jof which very many of the 

Abrtefcani true report 

filkc worses that come from thence into Europe are 
made, Hereofifit be planted and ordered as inPerfia^k 
cannot in reafon be otherwifc, but that there wUi rife in 
(horte time great profitc to the dealers therein^ feeing 
there is (b great vfc and vent thereof as wellin our coun- 
trey as els where. And by the meanes of fowing & plan- 
ting it in good ground^it will be farre greater ,better,and 
more plentiful! then it is. Although notwithftanding 
there isgreat ftore thereof in many places of the coun- 
trey growing naturally andwilde. Which alfo by proof 
here in England^in making a piece of filke Grogran, wc 
found to be excellent good. 

worme Silks •* I" maiiie of our iourneyes we found filkc 
wormes fayre and greats as biggeas our ordinary wal- 
nuttes. Although ithathnotbecneour happe to hauc 
found fuch plentie as elfewhere to be in the countrey wc 
haue heard of; yet feeing that the countrey doth natural^ 
ly twreede and nourifh them,there is no doubt but if art be 
added in planting of mulbery trees and others fittc for 
them in commodious placcs/or their feeding and nott- 
riftiings and (bmeof them carefully gathered and buC- 
banded in that fort as by men of skill is knowne to be ne- 
ceffaric : there will rife as great profite in time to the Vir^ 
gimans^ as thereof doth now to the Perfians^Turkes Jta- 
lians and Spaniards. 

Flaxeand Hempe: Tlic trueth IS that of Hempe and 
Flaxe there isaao great ftore in any one place together, 
ty reafon it is not planted but as the foile doth yeeld it of 
itfelfesandhowfoeuer the leafcjand ftemme or ftalkc 
doe differ from ours-, the ftuffe by the iudgemct' of mca 
of skill is altogether as good as ours, Andif notjasfuc* 
thcrproofefliould finde otherwifcj we haue that cxpc- 
nenccofthefoile^ as that there cannot bee (hewed anic 


of the neipofoHndUndofVirgmia. 

rcafbn to the contrary,but that it will grow there excels 
lent well, and by planting will be yceldcd plentifully :fec- 
ing there is fo muchgroundwhercof fojmemay wellbc 
applycdtofiichpurpofes. What benefite hcereof may 
growe in cordage and linnens who can not eafily vn- 

AllHmiVcitxtxs amncof earth along the lea coaft 
for the fpace of fourtie or fiftie miles, whereof by the 
iudgementof fomethat haue made triall hecre in En- 
gland, is made good ^/////»,ofthajtkindc which is called 
Roche AlUm. The richneffeof fuch a commoditie rs fo 
welllcnowne that I needenottofayeany thing thereofl 
The fame earth doth alfbyeelde white Coprejfe, Nitrum^ 
and Alumenfltimeur/iy but nothing fo plentifully as the 
common AUum^ which be alfo of price and profitable. 
mnpeih^z kinde of earth fo called by the naturallin- 
habitantss very like to terra SigHiata: and hauing beenc 
refined, it hath beene found by fome of our Phifitions 
and C hirurgeons to bee of the (ame kinde of vertue and 
more effcftuall.The inhabitants vfe it very much for the 
cure of fores and woundes: there is in diucrs places great 
plentic, and in fome places of a ble weibrt. 

Pitchy Tarrffy Roz^en^ and Turfejjtine : There are thofc 
lindes of trees which yeelde them abundantly and great 
ftorc. In the very fame Hand where v/ee were feated, be- 
ing fifteene miles of length, and fiue or fixe miles in 
breadth, there are fewe trees els but of the famekindi the 
whole Uand being fuH, 

Safafras^c^t^hythtmh^k^mtswinduk^ a kindeof 
woodof moft plcafant and fweete fmelj and of moft rare 
vertuesin phifickfor the cure of many difeafes.It is foud 
byexperiencetobee farre better andof more vfes theft 
the wood which is called Cuaiacfim^ or hiptm t/Zw* For 

B 1. the 

A briefe and true report 

the defcription, the manner of vfingandthc manifoldc 
vcrtiics thereof, I referreyou to the bookc o{ Movur^ 
4»A, tranflatcd and entituled in Englifh^r^tf ioyftiUneves 
Jrom the fVefi IncUes^ 

Cedary^\ety fwcetwood & fine timber; wherof if ncfts 
of cherts be there made,or timber therof fitted for fweet 
& fine bedfteads, tables^deskesjutes, virginalles & ma- 
ny things elfe^Cof which there hath beenc proofe made 
already y)to make vp firaite with other principal commo- 
dities will y eeld profite. 

Af^^:There are two kinds of grapes that the foile doth 
yeeid naturally: the one is fmall and fowre of the ordina- 
rie bignelTe as ours in England.- the other farre greater & 
ofbimfelfe lufhiousAvect. When they are planted and 
husbatided as theyought^aprincipall commoditie o£ 
wines by them may beraifed. 

0^/ff' There are two fortes of ;^^/»////<?i both holding 
oyle, but the one farre more plentiful! then the other. 
\Vhen there are milles & other dcuifes for the purpofe, 
a commodity of them may beraifed becaufe there are 
infinite ftorc. There arc alfo three feuerall kindes of 
ferries in the forme of Oke akornes , which alfo by 
the experience and vfe of the inhabitantes, wee finde to 
yeelde very good and fweete oyle, Furthermote the 
Bearesoimc countrcy are commonly very fattc, and in 
fome places there are many: their fatneffe becaufe it is fo 
liquid J may well be termed oyle, and hath many fpeciall 

Furres i All along the Sea coafl: there are great ftorc 
of Oners ^ which beey ng taken by weares and otheren- 
gines made for the purpofe ^ will yeelde good profite. 
Wee hope d\{oo{Marter»e fttrus^ and make no doubt 
by the relaiion of the people but that in fome places 


». n r 

oft he newfound landofyirginia. 

of the countrcy there arc ftorc : although there were 
but two fkinnes that came to our handes . Luzutmrr 
alfo we haue vnderftanding of^lthough for ihetime w c 
few none. 

Dearcjkint7ef drcffed after the manner oichamoes or 
vndrefled aretobehadofthenaturall inhabitants thou- 
fands yeerely by way of trafficke for trifles: and no more 
waft or fpoyle of Deare then is and hath beene ordinari- 
ly in time before. 

CiHct cartes : In our trauailes, there was founde one to 
haue beene killed by a faluage or inhabitant: and in an o- 
ther place the fmcD where one or more had lately beene 
before : whereby we gatficr befides then by the relation 
ofthe people that there are fome in the coutitrey : good 
profite will rife by them. 

Iron : In two places of the countrey fpecially, one 
about fourefcore and the^ other fixe fcqre mjes from, 
the Fort orplace where vvee dwelt ; wee founBe neerc 
the water fide the ground to be rockie,which by the tri. 
all of ^ n]iilierall man y was founde to holde yron 
richly. It is founde in manie places ofthe countrey 
clfe . I knowe nothing to the contrarie, but that it 
maie bee allowed for a good march^table commo- 
ditic y confidering there the fmall charge for the la- 
bour and feeding of men : the infinite ftpre of wood: 
the want of wood and deerenelle thereof in England ; & 
the neceflity of ballaftingof ftiippes, 

C(?;/f^r: A hundred and fifue miles into themaine in 
twotownes wee founde with the inhabitaunts diuerfe 
fmall plates of copper, that had beene made as wee vn- 
derftood , by the inhabitantes that dwell fanher into 
the countrey : where as they fay arcmountaines and 

B'3, riuers 

A briefe and true report 

Riiicrs that yccldc alfo wbytc grayncs of Mcttall , 
which h to bee deemed Siher. For confirmation where- 
of at die time of oUr firft arriuall in rhc Countrey ^ I 
favve withfbmc others with mec, twofmall pceces of 
iiluer grofly beaten about the weight of a Teilrone, 
hangyng in the eares of a wiroans or chefe Lorde that 
dwelt about fourefcorc myles from vs; of whom tho- 
rowc enquiry 5 by the number of dayes and the way, I 
learned that it had come to his handes from the fame 
place or neere, where I after vnderftood the copper was 
made and the white graynes of mettall founde. The 
aforefaide copper wee alio founde by triallto holde fiU 

Vearle : Sometimes in feeding on mufcles wee founde 
fomepearlejbut it was our hap to meete with ragges, 
or of a pide colour, not hauing yet dilcouercd thofe 
places where wee hearde of better and more plentie. 
One of our companies a man of skill in fuch 'matters, 
had gathered together from among the fauage peo- 
ple aboute^fiue thoulande: of which number lie chofc 
\o many as made a fayre chaine, which for their lilce- 
neffe and vniformitie in roundncfle, orientnejOTe , and 
pidcneffeof many excellent colours, with ecpialitie in 
greatneilc 5 were verie fayre and rare j and had there- 
fore bccne prefcnted to her Maicftie, had wee not by 
cafualtie and through extremity ofaftorme, loft therri 
with many things els in comming away from the coun- 

Sxceetf Gummes of diucrs kindesand many other A- 
pothecary drugges of which wee will make fpeciall 
mention , when wee fiiall receiue it from fiich men 
of skill m that kyndj that in taking rcafonable painesi 


oft he nerfifoundUndof Virginia. 
fliall difcoucr them more particularly then tvcc hauc 
done; and than now I can make relation of, for want 
of the examples I had prouided and gathered, and are 
nowc loft, with other thinges by caufualtic before men- 

Dyes of diners ki»des : TllCre h Shoemaks well kno- 
wen, and vfed in England for blacke s the fcede of an 
hearbe called a^^w^^oW^ little fmall rootes called Chap^ 
facfor*^ and the barke of the tree called by the inhabi-. 
taunts T^ngomockommdgti : which Dies are for diners 
fones of red : their goodnefle for our Englifh clothes 
remayne yet to be proued. The inhabitants vfethein 
oncly for the dying of hayre ^ and colouring of their 
faces, and Mantles made of Deare skinnes 5 and alfo 
for the dying of Rufhcs to make artificiall workes with- 
all in their iVlattes and Baskette^; hauing no other 
thing bcfides that they account of, apt to vfe them 
for. If they will not proue merchantable there is no 
dogbt but the Planters there fhall finde apte v(cs for 
them, as alfo for other colours which wee knowe to be 

0^^(fS a thing of fo great vent and vfe araongftEng. 
lifh DierSj which cannot bee yeelded fufficiently in our 
owne countrey for fpare of grounds may bee planted in 
rtrgmiaythtve being ground enough. The grouth iherof 
need not to be doubted ,whcn as in the Uandes of the A- 
fores it groweth plentifully ,which is in the fame climate. 
So likewifeof /^4^^^r. 

We carried thither Suger canes to phnt which beeing 
not fo well preferued as was requifit, & befides the time 
of the yere being paft for their fetting when we arriued, 
wee could not make that proofs of them as wee defired. 


Abriefi andtrue re^oH 

Notwithfl:anding5(ecing that they grow in the fame cIU 
mate J in the South part of Spaineand inBarbaryjOUr 
hope in reafon may yet cotinue. So likewifc for Orefjges^ 
and Lemmom : there may be planted alfo Qmnfes^ Wher- 
by may grow in rcafonable time if the adio be diligent- 
ly profecuted, no fmall commodities in Sugers ^Bucket Sy 
and Marmalades. 

Many other commodities by planting may there alfo 
bee railed, which I leaue to your difcret and gentle con- 
fiderations : and many alfo bee there which yet we hauc 
notdifcouered. Twojnorc commodities of great value 
one of certaintie, and the other in hope, not to be plan- 
ted5but there to be raifed & in (hort time to be prouided 
and prepared, I might hauc Ipecificd. So likewife of 
thofe commodities already fet downe I might haue faid 
more; as ofthe particular places where they arefoundc 
and bell to be planted and prepared: by what meanes 
and in what rcafonable (pace of time they might berai* 
fed to profit and in what proportion^ but bccauft others 
then welwillers might bee therewithal^ acquainted^ 
nottothegoodof theadion, I haue wittingly omitted 
them : knowing that to thofc that are well difpofed I 
haue vttered, according to my promife and purpofc,foc 
this part fufficient* 



Tliefecondpart of fuche commodities 

ftcnancc of mans life, vfually fed vpon by the 

»atHraU inhabit ants : as ai[o bj vs dnring the 
time ofoftraboad. Andjh'fl offuth as arc 

Agatmt, aldndc of grainc fb called by 
the inhabitants ; the fame in the Well 
Indies'is called Mayz,e : Englifh men 
.^all it'^fiinneywheate or Turkle vph^atc^ 
according to the names of thecoun- 
treys from whence thelike hath bcenc 
brought The graine is about the bignefle of our ordi- 
nary Englifh peazc and not much different in fornie and 
Ihape: but of diners colours: fome white/ome red/omc 
^(.ello'Waandfomeblew, Allof them yeeldea very white 
andfVeete flowre : bceing vfed accof ding to his kinde it 
raalceth a very good bread.Weemade pf the fame intho 
countrey fbme mault, whereof was br ued as good ale as 
was to bee defired. So likewife by the help of bops thcr- 
of may bee made as good Beere. It is a graine of maruei- 
lous great increafe; of a thoufand, fifteene hundred and 
fbme two thoufand fold. There arethree forteSjof which 
two are ripe in an c-Ieuen and twelac weekes at the niofU 
fpmctimcs in tenjafter the time they are fetjand are theii 
ofheight in flalke about fixe or fcuen foote. The other 
fortisripeinfourteene'5 and is about ten footeliigh, of 
jhc ftalkes fomcbearc foure heads, fome thtce, fome 
oncjand two : eucry hc^d containing fiuc, fixe, or feuen 
htindrcd.graines within a fewc more or leCTe. Of thefe 
mines befides bread, the iphabitants make viduail cy^- 

C thcr 

tAhriefe and true repoft 

thciby parching them; or fccthing them whole yntill 
they be broken; or boyling the floure with water into a 

Okindgter^Q^VizA by vs Beams y bccaufc in grcatndle & 
partly in lliape they are like to the Beanes in Engiandjfa- 
iiing that they are flattcr^of more diuers colours, and 
fomcpidc. Theleafealfoof theftemme is much diffe- 
rent, hi taftexhey are altogether as good as our Englifli 

tvickofiz^owr yC^Wti by vs Peaz.e^x\ xtfy^Oi of the beanes 
for diftiniSlio fake^becaufe they are much leflesalthough 
in forme they little differ^ but in goodncffc of taft much, 
& arc far better then our Englifli peazc.Both the beanes 
and peazc are ripe in tenne weekcs after they arc (et* 
They make them viduall cither by boy ling them all to 
pieces into abroth; or boiling them whole vritill they 
bee foft and beginne tobreake as is vfcd in England, cy-. 
thcr by tbemfelues ormixtly together : Sometime they 
mingle of the wheate with them. Sometime alfo beeing 
whole fodden^they brufe or pound them in a morter, & 
thereof make loauesorlumpsof dowifliebread^which 
they vfc to eat for varietic. 

v^^rdV^^r, according to their fcuerall formes called 
by vs^PompioKSy MMofis, and Gourdes^ becaufe they arc 
of the like formes as thofe kindes in England In Vtrgwia 
fuchoffeuerall formes are of onctafte and verygood^ 
and do alfo fpringfirom one fced.There are of two forts; 
one \% ripe in the (pace of a moneth^and the other in two 

There i$ an hearbe which in Dutch is called Melden, 
Some of thofethat I defcribe it vnto^take it to be a kindc 
of Oragc; it gro weih about fourc or fine foote high : of 
thefcede thereof they make a thicke broth, and pottage 


of the nei» found t^ndofViratnix 

of a vciy good taftc : of the ftalkc by burning into afhcs 
they make a kindeof fait earth, wherewithal! many vfc 
fometimes to feafon their brothes ; odier fake, they 
kaowenot.Wecpurfelues vfed rficleauesalfofoc-pot- 

^ There is alfb another great hearbc in forme of a Ma- 
jrigolde, abouc fixe footcin height^ the head with the 
^ourc is a {panne in breadth. Some take ittobeeP/4«/4 
Solis: of thefeedes'heereof they make both a kinde of 
bread andbroth: 

All the aforefaide commodities for vidiiall are fet or 
lowed, fometimes in groundes a part and feuerally by 
thefeliies s but for the moft part together in one ground 
mixtly : the manner thereof witli the drelling and prepa- 
ring of the ground,becaufe I will iioteYnt07ou the fer- 
tilitie ofthe foile; I thinke good briefly to dcfcribe. 

The gr6und they neuer fattenwith niucke,dounge on 
any other thing, neither plow nor diggeit as we in Eng- 
land, but onely prepare it in fort as follbweth. A fcwc 
daies before they fo we or fet, the men with wooden in- 
lb:aiiients,made,almofl:in forme of mattockes or hoes 
vvith long handles; the women with (laort peckers or pa- 
rersjbecaufe they vfe them fittit1g,of afoote bng and a- 
bout fine inches in breadth : doe onely breake the vpper 
part ofthe ground to rayfe vp the weedes, grafle, &: old 
ftubbes of come ftalkes with their rootes.The which af- 
ter a day or twoes drying ia th^ Simne,,bcingfcrapte vp 
into many fmall heapes,to faii^ them labour foccarrying 
them away ; they burne into afhes, ( And ivhercas 
fomc may tliinke that they vfe the afhes for to bet- 
ter the grounde; I fay tha^ then they wroulde cyther 
difperfe the afhes abroade; which wee obferued they 
doe nor, except the heapes bee too great : or els would: 

C 2. take 

taltcfpeciall cgtc tofct their eornc where the afhcslfcj. 
which alio wee findetbeyarc-carclefle of. ^ And thl^ is 
allthchiif baiidingof their ground that they vTe* 

Then their fetung or fowingis after this maner. Firft 
for thefr .cornc^ beginning in one corner of the ploti 
with a pecker they make a holci wherein they putloure 
graines with that care they touch not one another, (a- 
bpiit an inch afunderjandcouec them with the moulds 
rgaine : andfo throughout the'whole plot^makirigfuch 
holes and vfing them after fuch maner : but with thistc*- 
card that they bee made in rankes, cuery ranke differing 
homotherhalfeafadomcor a yarde, and the holes alio 
in euery ranke^as much. By this meanes therei's ayarde 
Ipare ground betvveneeuery hole : where according to 
difcretion here and thcrc^ they let as many Beanes and 
Peaze: in diuers places alfb among. the fcedcs oiMk^ 

cocqveer Melden and Plantafolis. 

' The ground being thus fct according t6 the rate by 
vs experimented, an Englifli, Acre conteining fouitic 
pearchcs in length, and foure in breadth , doeth there 
y eeld in croppe or ofcome of corne, beanes, and peaze^ 
at theleaft two hvindred London bufhellcs : befides the 
Aiacocqvcer^Mdderj^ and Vkmafolis: VVhenas in Eng- 
land fcurtie bliflieJles of our wheate yeelded out of fuch 
an acre is thought to be much. 

•1 thought alfo good to note this vnto you,^ you which 
fhallinhabite andplant there, male know how fpecially 
that countrey come is there to beprcferred before ours: 
Befides the manifold waics in applying it to viduall^ thq 
increafe is fo much that fmall labour and paines is need* 
ful in refpcdT: that muft be vfed for ours. For this I can af- 
fure you that according to the rate we haue made proofe 
of^one man may prepare and huiband fo much grounde 


ofthna^ found UndofVirgmia. 

(hauing once borne cornc before) with Icffe then fourc 
and twcntie houres laboiir^as ftall y eeldc him viftuall in 
Ti large proportion for a twelue moneth, if hcc haucno- 
thingeircjbiitthat which the fame ground will yecldc, 
andofthatkindconeliewhichi hauc before fpoken of: 
the faide ground being alfo but of fiue and twentic yards 
iquare. And if neede rcquirCj but that there is ground c- 
nough ^ there might be raifed out of oneand the felffamc 
ground two harucftes or ofcomes-j for they fowe or fee 
and may at anie time when they thinke good from the 
middeft of March vntilltheendeof lune; fo that they 
alfb fet when they haue eaten of their firft croppe . In 
fdme places of the countrey notwithftanding they hauc 
twoharuefl:s,as we haue heard^ out of one and the fame 

For Englifli cornc ncuertheles whether to vfe or not 
to vfe.itj you that" inhabite maie do as you fhall haue far-, 
ther caufe to thinke beft. Of the grouth you need not to 
doubt; for barlie, oatesandpeazejwehaue feene proof 
of^ not beeing purpofely fowen but fallen cafually in the 
m)rft fort of ground^and yet to be as faire as any we hauie 
cuer feene here in England. Butofwheat becaofcitwas 
mufly and hadtakenfalt water wee could make jn6 trial!: 
and of rye we had none. Thus Tniich haue I digrefi. 
fedandlhopenotYnnecefTarily : nowe-will I jreturne a- 
gainc to my courfe and intreate of that which yet rcmai- 
neth appertaining ro this Chapter^ 

There is an herbe whicbis fowed a part by it felfc & 
is called by the inhabitants zyfoW^.- In the Weft Indies 
it hath diuers names^ according tothe feuerall places & 
countries where it growCth and ist vfed : The Spaniardes. 
generally rail it 7'^^^r^^. The leaner thereof being dried 
and brousht into powder: they vfe to takethefumc orj 
^ ^ C3. finokc 

tA bmje^ndtru^ report 

fmolctlicl^cof by fucking It through pipes itiadccfclaie 
into their ftomack'c and heaclesfroiti whence it |)urgeih 
fupcrfluous fleame Mother groffe hun^oj-s^dpencth afi 
theppres & paff ages of the which mcancs the 
vfe thereof,notonly preferueth the body from obftru(ai> 
ons^but alfo if any be/o that they haue not bcenc of too 
long continuancCjih (hort time breakcth them : whcrby 
their bodies arc hot^blypreferued in health3& know not 
many greeuous difeafeS wherewrithall wee in England 
are oftentimes afflidcd. 

'D^iiypfowocis of j[b precious cftimationamongeft 
thSjthat they thinketheir-gods are marueloufly deligh- 
ted thenvith: Wherupon lometime they make hallowed 
fires & caft fome of the ponder therein for a facrifice:be- 
ing in a florme vppon the waters, to pacific their gods.r 
they cafl fbmevp into the aire and into the water ;fQ a 
wearc for fifli beingnewly fetvpjthey caft fomfe therein 
and into the aireralfo after an efcape of danger^they cafi: 
Ibme into the aire likewi(e:but all done with ftrangc gc- 
fturesjftampingjfomtimc dauncing.clapping of hands^ 
holding vp of hands, & flaring vp into the hcaues, vtte- 
ring therewithal and chattering flr^nge words & noifc$» 

We our fclbes dufing the time we were there vfedto 
fiickitafier their mancr^as alfb fince our returne3& haue 
found manic rare and wonderful experiments of theyer- 
tuesthereofsofwhich the relation woulde require a vo- 
lume by it felfe.- the vfe of it by fomanieoflate, men & 
women of great calling as elfe, and fome learned Phifiti- 
ons alfojisfufficient witnes. 

And thefc are all the commodities for fuftenancc of 
life that Iknow and can remember they vfe to husband: 
all,^lfc that followe arte founde growing naturally or 


of the newfound landofVirgmia. 

Of Root es. 

OPemnkjixt a kind of roots of round fotmc^fomc of 
the bignes ofwalnuts^fbmefargreatcr^which are 
found in moift & marifh grounds growing many 
together one by another in ropes^ or as thogh they were 
faltnened with a Ilring, Being boiled ot fbddcn they arc 
very good meate. 

OkeefenankSiXQ alfo of roud fhape^found inrdry grouds: 
fome are of the bignes of ^ mans head.They are to be ea- 
ten as they are taken out of the ground^for by reafon of 
their drineilc they will neither rpftc nor fteth. Their taft 
h not fb good as of the former rootes, notwithftanding 
for want of bread & fom times for varietie the inhabitats 
vfc to cate them with fifh oi^ flcfli, and .in my iudgement 
they doc as well as the houfhold bread made of rie heerc 

Kai[hHcpeftaul^z white kind of roots about the bignes of 
hen egs & nere of that forme : their tafl: was not io good 
tpourfeemingasoftheother^andtherfore their place 
arid mannct^growing not lb much cared for by vs:the 
inhabitants notwithftanding vfed to boile Sc eatc many. 
T/thaw a kind of rodte much like vnto y which in Eng- 
land is called the Chhut root brought from the Eail Indies* 
And we know not 4nie thing to the contrary but that it 
maie be ofthefattTckind.Thefe roots grow manie toge- 
ther in great cluftcrs^nd doe bring foorth a brier ftaike, 
burthe Icafe in ftiapc far vnlikej which beeing lupportcd 
by the trees it gro weth necreft vnto^ wil reach or climbc 
to the top of the higheft.From thefe roots while they be 
new orfrefli beeing chopt into CnaU pieces & ftampr, is 
ftraincd with water a iuice that maketh bread, & alfo be- 
ing boiled a very good fpoonemeate in mancr ofa gelly, 
suid is much better int^ftif it bee tempered yvitb oyle. 

Ca. This 

tA brUfi and t me report 

Tilts 7)r«<«»^Is4iotofthatjS)rt which by fomdwas caufcd 
to be brought into Englandfor thi Chmaroote^ioxitvfzs 
difcoucrcdfince^ and is in vfc as is aforciaide: but that? 
which was brought hither is not yet knpwnc neither By 
vs nor by the inhabitants to ferue for any vfe or purpofej 
although therootes in ftidpe are very like. ^ 

Cofcfifhaw^ fomc of our company tooke to bee that 
kindeofrootevYhichth.e"Spaniards in the Weft Indies 
call ar^/!.f;5whereijpon alfo many called it by that name: 
itgrowethinverytnuddie pooles and moift groundcs. 
Being drcfled according to the countrey maner^ it ma- 
Jvcth a good bread^and alfb a good fponemeate . ^nd is' v- 
fed very much by die inhabitants : The iuicex)r thisjoot 
is poifonjand therefore heedcmufi; be taken before any 
thing be made therewithal! ^Either the rootes rn wfttefe 
firft diced and dried in the Sunne^ or bythefire, and 
then beingpounded into floiire wil make good brcadior 
els while they arc greene they areto bee pared5cu t into 
pieces and ftampt; loues of the fame to be laid neere or 
ouer the fire viitiU it be fourCjand then being.wcU poun- 
ded againe^bread^or (pone meatc very god ill taftc^ arid' 
holforoe may be made thereof, 

HahafioKis a rootc of hoat tafte almoflof thclbrme 
and bignefle of a Parfencepe^ of it felfe itis no yiiSludl, 
but onely a hcipe beeing boiled together with otlicr 

There are alfo Lcekes differing little from ours inEng- 
Jand that grow in many places of the coutrey^oi^vhichj 
wh<in wecame in places where they were, wee gathered 
and cate manyjbut the natural! inhabitants ncuer. 




C Hefimts ^tli^v^ are in diners places great ftore.-fbmc 
they vfe to caterawe.fomc they ftampc and boile 
to make (poonemeatCj and with fomc being foddc 
they make fiicha manner of dowe bread as they vfe of 
^heir beahes before mentioned* 

' Walnuts : There are two kindes of WalnutSjand ofthc 
fnfinit ftorc:In itiany places where very great w6ods for 
many miles together the third part of trees ^are walnut^ 
trees.The one kind is of the fame tafte and forme or litlc 
differing from puts ofEngland, but th^t they are harder 
alli^ thicker (liclled-; the other is greater and nath a veric 
riagged'aiidhatd'e (Tiell : but the kemell great, veric oy- 
iie and (Weete-. Befides their eating of them after 
Ourordiriaricnlanerj they breake them withftones and 
Jjound them in morters with water to make a milk which 
they vfe to pitt into fome forts of their Ipoonmeate; alfo 
among their fbdde whcatjpeazCjbeanes andpompions 
ivhiich maketh them haue a farrc more plcafant tafte. 

MeilAYi a kind of verie good fruit/o called by vs chief- 
lieforthcferefpeftest firllinthatthey arj: not good vn- 
till they be rotten: then in that they open at the head as 
our medlars^and arc about the fame bigncflc : otherwifc 
in tafte aod colour they arc farre different: for they are 
^s red as cheries aiid very fweet : but whereas the chcric 
is (harpe (weetjthey are lufhious fweet* 

MsuciHefummk.^ a kindc of' pleafauritfmite almoft of 
thcftiape&WgnesofEnglifhpea.res, but thatthcy.arc 
ofaperfed red colour as well within as without. They 
grow on a plant whofe leaues are veric Jthickc aad full of 
prickles as (harpe av needles.: Some that haucbinin the 
Indies, where tttcy haucfccnrfiatkind ofrcd die of great 

D prtcc 


price wlikfi IS called CQehitMe^t^^^xoyrf^ doc defcribe his 
plant pightlike vnto this biMepaquefii^Mauk but whether 
it be xhttmccochtmkotihM'SAdoxmlit^^ caiinot 
yet be certifiedjfeeingthat alfo/asl-hcard^Cor^/w/^ is not 
ofihe fruite biit foundc on the Icaucs of the piantswfaich 
Jeaues for fiich matter wc hauenot fo fpecially obferued 

Gf'apes therearc of two forts which I mehtioncdin the 
nlarchaiitablc commodities. 

^trahmes there are as good & as great as thofe wljich 
we haue in our Englifh gardens, 

Mnlberies^ Afpka-ah^Hfirts 01 HurMemffvich^S wee 

presbut fomcwhat greater which grpwtQg;eth€riad«i^ 
ilers vpon a plant or herb that is. found in fbalovy Vi^t;ers: 
being boiled eight or nine hours according to their Icinci 
arc very good meate and holefome, oth^rmfc if they be 
eaten they will make a mail for the time frantickc oi^ex- 
tremely fickc^ 

There is akind of r^^^ which beareth aiecd almoft like 
vnto our rie or wheats & being boiled is good meate. 

In pur trauailes in fome places wee founde Mde p^azff 
like vnto ours inEngland but that they wcrclefle^ which 
are alfo good meatc. 

Of a hindeof frtitte or hrrU in forme •f 

THere is akind of berrie or acbrne^ >of which there 
are Sue forts that groW on feueral kinds of trees5thc 
one is called Sagatmener^ the fccond Ofamener^ thc 
third Tumfntith^ner^ 7he(c kmd of acprns they vft to dric 
vpon hurdles made of reeds with fire Yndcmeatbalmofi 
alter thc maner as wc drym^c in Englad. Whco;they arc 

to be vfed they firft vvatcrthem vntilthcy be (oft & then 
being fod theymafec a good vidud^cithcr to catc fo fim- 
plVjOr els bciitgaifopouniie4 to tt\dhz loawcs or lumpcs 
ot bread* Thcfe be alfo the three kinds ofwhichiluid 
beforcjthc inhabitants vfed to make fwcct oyle. 

An other fortis eallcd.y^jj^»w»^«rr which Dcingboilcd 
or parched doth eate and taftc like vnto eheftnuts. They 
ibmetiiiie alfo make bread of this fort. 

The ^iKh{onisc^^iMa>tgiimme)tauk.^ thea- 
cornc of their kind of oake, the, which bceing dr'ed aftet 
the maner of the firft fbrtesj and afterward watered they 
boile them^fe their feriiants or Ibmetime the chiefe th& 
fellies, either for variety or for want of breads doeeat^ 
them with their fi{h or ilefti. ' 


DEarffiin fomc places there are great ftoremccre vn- 
to the lea coaft they are of the ordinarie bignes as 
oursinEnglandj&fomelcfferbut furthervp imo 
the countrey where there is better feed they are greater: 
they differ from ours onely inthis, theirtailes arelonger 

Comes ^ Thofc that we haue feen & al chat we canhearc 
c>f arc of a grey colour like vnto hares: in fomc places 
there are fuch plentiethat all the people of fome townes 
make them- mantlesofthcfurrcor flucof thcskinnes of 
thofe they vfually take. 

Sa^ftemckot & Maqtdwaei twokiades of ImaUbeaftes 
greater then conies vrfiich arc very good meat, Wc ne- 
wer i^okc anyof them ourfeluesjbutfometimc catc of 
fuch as the inhabitatitshad taken & brought vntciv^* 
^f^/rr/f which arcofagrcycalbut^weh^ take &cate 

% ^earet 

A brieji and true re fart 

Siores which are all of black colour.The bcares of this 
coimtrey are good mtmthc Inhabitants in time of win- 
ter da vie to take & eat;e maniejfp^lfo forniimc didwee. 
They aire taken commonlie in'tbis fort.In frpic Hands or 
pl^ces^wbere they are^being hunted fotjias fooneas they 
hauc^iall of a man they prefently ^un awaie^g^ then be- 
ing chafedthey clime and get vpthe next tree they can, 
from, whence with arrowesthcyareOiot downe flarkc 
dead, or with thofe wounds that they may after eafilj^ be 
killedj we fometime fhotte them downe withopr calee- 

^Ihaue the names ofeight& twenty ieuerall fortes of 
beafts which I hauc heard of to be here and there di/per- 
fed in the coutrie,efpccially in the maiqerof which there 
are only twelue kinds that we haue yet difcouered^ & t)f 
thofe that be good meat wc know only them before me- 
tioned.The inhabitants fomtimekiltheI;;^»& cat him: 
& we Fomtime as they came to our hands oithmJV^Im 
or vpoifitpj Dogges 5 which I haue not fet downefor good 
meatjieaft thatfomc wouldevndcrftand my iudgement 
therin t6 be more fimplc than needeth,aIthoughI.couId 
alleage the difference in tafte of thofe kindes'irom o\irs, 
which by fomc of our company haue bcene experiment 
ted in both. 


TFrkie Roches and Turkie hemes:: Stockioues :Tartri^i$f 
Cranes.'Herfjes: & in winter great ftore o£$vsfannes & 

^^f/p.OfaIfortes:bf foulelhaue^th*^ names inthe 
'couiTtrie language cffoarcfcore and fixe of which num- 
ber befides thofe that be named^we haue takenyeateny& 
hnue the pifturcs as they were there, drawncmth the 
names of the inhabitaunts.of fcuerall flrange fortes of 



water foulc eighc,and (eueteene kinds more ofland foulj 
akhough wee haue feen and eaten of many more, which 
forwantofleafurethere for thepurpofc couldcnotbee 
pidured: and after wee arc better furnifliedand ftored 
vpon further difcouery,witb their firange beaftcs, fifbc, 
trees, plants, and hcarbcs, they (hall bee alfo publifhcd 
There are alfo PttrauJPaulcom^^ Mai'lm b/mks' ,vih\c)\ 
dthough with vs they bee not vfed for meate, y et for o- 
ther caufes I thought good to mention. 


FOr fourc moftcthesof thcycerc,February,March, 
Aprill and May, there are plfentic of Sturgeons .• And 
alfo in the famemonethes of Hif»r/»^^,fomeof the 
ordinary bigneffe as burs in England, but the moft part 
farrb ereater,ofeighteene,twentie inches,and fome two 
foote in length and better 5 both thcfe kindes of fiflie in 
thofe monetbcs are moft plentifuU, andmbeftfeafon, 
which wee foiihde to bee moft delicate andplealaiint 

""There are alfo Trmes .- Torfoifes .• /?<t/« .' Oldwmfs.AdHl. 
fift) whithwehauetaken 8ceaten,whofe names! know 
not butin the countrey language; wcehaue of twcluc 

"^ffiShSStocake f -manerof wag 

countrey are very ftrong.Theother way whichis more 
SSs with poles made{harpeatonecnde,by(hoo- 

STgleSiThefifl. afterthe r^-^J^^-^^^^^:^ 


(h«y ju« wading in the fhallowcs for thepurpolc. 

There arc alio in many places plentic of thefe landcs 
which follow* 

^if/nv^^/ijfuchas we hauc in England. 

OyfiersSovnc very great^and fomc Imallj (bmc rounde 
and forae of a long fhape : They arc foundcboth in faU 
water and brackifli^and thofe that we had out of fait wa- 
ter are far better than the other as in our o wne countrey* 

Alfo Mnfcles: Scalopts i Perimnkles ; and Creuifes^ 

Seekanaft^y a kindc of cruftie ftiell fifhc which is good 
meatejaboutafootcinbreadth^hauing a cruftie tayle, 
many leggcs like a crab; and her eyes in her backe. They 
:rrefoundcin ftiallowesof fait waters; andfometimeoil 

There arc naany T^rt0yfes both of lande and fea kinder, 
their bapkcs & bellies are (helled very thickes their headj 
feete, and taile, which are in appearancc,fecme ougly a^ 
thoughthcy wercniembcrsof a fcrpent or venemouss 
but notwithftanding they are very good meatc, as affi> 
their egges. Some haueoene founcfc of a yard in breddi 
and better. 

Andthus hauc I made relation of all fortes of viauall 
diat wefedvponforthe timewewerein Vtrgima^s^Q 
8:hc inhabitants thenafelues^as farre foorth as I knowc 
and can remcnabcr or that are ^edally worthy to bee re* 


€>fthe newfoundUndofVirginla. 

^Thc third and laft part of fuch other 

thmges as is behoofuUfir thofe -which fhall 

plant and inhabit to know of; with a dercrip-. 

tion of the nature and manners of the 

feofle of the conmrey. 

Of commodities for building and 
other tfccejfarj vfes, 

Hoft Other things which I ammoreto 
make rchearfall of^arefuch as conccrnc 
building, and other mechanicallnccct 
farie vfes 5 as diuers fortes of trees for 
houfe & fhip timber jand other vfes els: 
Alfo limejftonejand brickalcaft that be- 
ing not mentioned fome might hauc bene doubted of^or 
by fome that are malicious reported the contrary, 

Ok^Sy there are as faire jftrai ght, tall, and as good tim- 
ber as any can be^and alfo great ftorc^and in fome places 
very great. 

fVa/trfsttreef^aslh^LUt faide before very many, fbmc 
haue bene feen excellent faire timber of foure & fine fa- 
domCySc aboue fourefcore foot ftrefght without bough. 
Fine trees fit for mafts of (hips/ome very tall & great. 
Kakiock^^ kind of trees fo called that are (weet wood of 
which the inhabitans that wereneerevnto vs doecom- 
inoly make their boats or Canoes of the form of tro wes; 
only with the helpe of fire^hatchets offtonesjand (hels; 
we qaue known fome fo great being madein that fort of 
one tree thatthey haue carried well at once^bc- 
iides much ba ^gage: the timber being great jtal^ftreight^ 
Ibfr3h*ght3& ycc tough enough I thinkeCbefides other v- 
les) to be fit alfo for mafts of fhips. 

Cedar ^z fweet wood good for feeliogs^Chcfts^Boxcs, 


Abriefeandtrue report 

Bccfftccdcs, Lures, Virginals, and many things els, as I 
haqc ilfo (aid bcforc.Somc of our company w hich hauc 
waqdtred in fome places where I haue not bcnCjhaue 
madecertaine affirmation of C)'prw which for fuch and 
other excellent vfcs, is alfo a wood of price and no fmall 

Mafle^znA alfo mch'fjaz,leiwh€xo£ the inhabitants vfe 
to make their bowes. 

Hoify a neceflar)» thing for the raakidg of bif dlime* 

wilbwes good for the making of weares and weeles to 
take fifh after the Englifh manner, although the inhabi- 
tants vfe only reedes,whiehbecaufe they arc;ib ftrong 
as alfo flexible, do fcruc for thatturne very jyelland m* 

Be^h and j4Jhe^ good for caflcCyhoopes : andif needc 
require,plow worke,as alfo for many things els, 

Safafias trees. 

jifiofG a kinde of tree very like vnto Lavvrell, the barke 
is boat in tail and rpicie,it is very like to that tree which 
Monardus defcribethto heeCafsia Lignea of the Weft 

There arc many other ilrange trees whofe names! 
knowe iiot but in the mrginmn language, of which lam 
not nowe able, neither is itfoconuenientfbrthepte^ 
lent to trouble you with particular relation : feeing that 
for timber and other neccffary vfes I haue named iuffici- 
cnt ; And of many of the reft out that they may be appli- 
ed to good yfe, I know no caulc to doubt* 

Now for Stone,Bricke and Lime,tlau^it is.Neere vn- 
to the Sea coaft where wee dwelt, there are no kinde o£ 
ftones to bee found (except a fewe fmall pebbles about 
foure miles oS) but tuch as haue bene brought from far- 

cfthe newfoundlandofVirginid. 
farther out of the niaine. Infomcof our voiagcs wcc 
Jiauc fcenc diuers hard raggie ftones, great pebbles, and 
a kindc of grey ftonc like vn:o marble, of which the in- 
habitants make their hatchers to clceue wood. Vpon in- 
quirie wcc heard that a little further vp into the Coun- 
trey were of all fortes veric many , although of Quarries 
they arc ignorant, neither haue they vie of any ftorc 
whereupon they fhould haue occafion to fecke any. For 
if eueriehoufholdebaueoneortwo to crackq Nutics, 
grinde flieUcs^whct copper,and (bmctimes other ftones 
J)r hatchets, th^' haue enough : neither vfe they any 
digg^^g>butonelyforgraues about three foote dcepe: 
and therefore no maioiaile that they know neither Quaf- 
|:ics,nor lime ftoncsjwhich toth may bee in places nce- 
j:cr than they wot of 

In the meane time vntill there bee difcouerie of fuffi- 
cientftoreinfome place or other conuenicnt, the want 
ofyou which arc and flialbc the planters therein may be 
as well fupplicd by Brickc : for the makine whereof in di- 
ll ers places ofthe countrey there is clay both excellent 
good,and plenties and alfo by limemade of Oifter fhels, 
^nd of others burnt, after the maneras they vfe in the 
lies of Tenet and Shepy^ and alfo in diuers orher places 
of England : Which kinde of lime is wellknownc to bee 
as good as any ot4ier. And of Oifter (hels there is plentic 
enough : for bcfides diuers other particular places where 
are abundance, there is one fhallowc founde along the 
coaft, where for the fpace of many miles together in 
length5and two or three miles in breadth, the grounde 
is nothing els beeing but halfe a foote or a foote vndct 
water for the rpoft part. 

This much can I fay further more of ftones, that a- 
bout 1 2 o.railes from our fore neere the water in the fide 

E of 

^briefi and true report 

ofeliin wasfoimde bya Gentleman of our company ^a 
greatveincof hard raggeftones, which I thought good 

Of the nature and manners of 


T reflethi fpcalcea word ortwoof thena- 
turallinhabitants^thcir natures and maners^ 
Icauing large dikourfc thereof vntill time 
more coriuenient hereafter : nowe pnelyfo 
farrefoorthjas that you may know-how that they in re** 
fped oftroubling our inhabiting and planting, are riot 
to be feareds but that: they fhall haue caufc botiitofcare 
and loue vsjthat fhall inhabite with them. 

They area people clothed withloofe mantles made 
ofDeere $kins^& aprons of the fame rounde about theiU 
middles^ all els nakedjoffuch adifference of flaturcs on* 
ly as wcein Englandj'hauing no edge tooles or weapons 
of yron or fteele to offend vs wirhall^neither know they 
how to make any tthofc weapons y they haue^ are onlie 
ged truncheons alfo of wood about ayard long , neithet 
hatJe they any thing to defed thefelues but targetimad^ 
of barks; and fbme armours made of ftickes wickered to* 
gerher with thread. 

Their towpcs are but fmall^ & ncerethe feacoaft but 
ftvy/ome containing but lo.or 1 2.houfcs:f6me 2o.thc 
^(bteft that; we halie feenchaue bcnebut of 30* houfcs: 
if they bewailed it is only done with barks of trees made 
fafttoftakes^orels withpplcs onely fixed vprightand 
clofe oncby another* 



Their hooftsai^madc of (mall pbJcsmadcfaftatthc 
tops in roundc forme after themancr as is vfcd in many 
aroorics in our gardens of England jin mofttoxvncs co«f 
ucred with barkcs^and in fomc wi^th artificiall mattes 
made of long ruftiesj from the tops of the houfes downc 
to the ground.The length of them is commonly double 
to the breadthjin fomc places they arc but 12, and 16. 
yardesiong> ^nd mother fomc wee haue feene of fourc 

in fomc places of thccountrcy one oocly townefae* 
l6ngeth to the gouemmcnt of a fviroansoi chiefe Lordcj 
in other fojpe two or threcjin fomc fixcj eighty & morej 
the^eateft ;f^/r«W thatyet we had deaUng with had hut 
cighteenetowjics in his goucrnmcnt^andable to make 
notaboue fcuen or eight hundred fighting men at the 
moft : The language 'of cueiygoucrnment is different 
from any otherjand the farther they are diftant the grea- 
ter is the difference. 

Their maner of warres amongft thcmfclues is cither 
byfuddcn furprifing one an other moftcomonly about 
the dawning of the ^iay, or moone lights or els by am- 
tufhesjorfomc futtledeuifes: Set battels arc veryra^c, 
except it fall out where there ar^ many trees^ where ey. 
iher part may haue fomc hope of dciencCjaft^r the deli- 
ucrie of eucry arrow^rn leaping behind fomeorothcr. 

If there fall out any warres between vs & them . what 
their fight is likely to bee^wc hauing aduantages^againft 
them fomany mancrof waicsjasbyourdifciplincjour 
ftrangc weapons and deuifcsels, efpecially by ordinan- 
ce ^ great and fmall^k may be eafily imagined^ by the ex- 
perience we haue had infome placesj the turning vp of 
their heeles againft vsin running away was their bcft de- 
fence. «. 

^bri^e andifiie report 

In rcfpcft ofvsthcyArca people pocrCj and fox want 
of skilj.and iudgcmetip&i the knowledge andvfe of our 
things j doe efteemeoui trifles before tbinges of greater 
value r.Notwkhftanding in their proper manner confi* 
dcring the want of fuch mcanes as we haue, they {cemc 
very ingenious^ For although they haueno fuch tooles, 
nor any fuch craftes, fciences and artes asAveej yet ia 
thofethinges they doc, they fliewe excellericie of wit* 
AndbyhoweniUch they vpon due confidcration (hall 
iindc our manner of knowledges and crafces to exccedc 
theirs in perfection, and fpced for doing or execution^ 
by fo m\ich the more is it probable that they (houlde de^ 
fire our fricndfhips & loue, and haue the greater rcfpeft 
for pleafing and obeying vs. Whereby may bee hoped 
if meanes of good gouernment bee vfed, that they may 
in fliort timebe brought to ciuilitie, and the imbracing 
of true religion. ^ 

Somereligion they hauealreadie, whichalthough it 
bcfarrc from the truth^yet beyng asitis,thercis4iope 
•it may bee the-cafier and fooner retormed. 

They bdceue that there arc many Gods which they 
call Mofitoac^ but of different fortes and degreesSQilc 
onclychiefeand great God, which hath bene ftom all 
eternitic . Who as they aflSrmc when hec purpofed 
to make t,hc worldc, madefirft othergoddes of aptini* 
cipcOlotdertobee as mcanes and inftruments to .bee v- 
led in the creation and gouernment to follow 5 and af- 
ter the Sunnc, Moone, and Starres, as pettie goddes 
and the Inftruments of the other order more princi- 
pall. Frft they fay were made watets , out of which 

bythcgods was toadeaUdiuerfitieof creatures that ;lrc 


cfthencipo found kndofVirgimc^. 

Fot manlciadthcy fay a^woilian tvas made firft,which 
bythc woorldngof oneof the gaddesi concciiicd and 
brought foorth children: Aadinluchlorttlicy faytlicy 
had their beginning. 

But how niaoic ycercs or ages hauc paffcd fincc, the/ 
fay they can make no relatio^hamngno letters nor other 
fuch mcanesas we to keeperecordcs of the particulari- 
ties of tini^s part, but onelic tradition from father to 

They think that all' the gods arc of humane ftiape, 
Srthertorethey reprefent-them ty images in the formes 
ofmcni which they call Kewafiwok^oti^ alone is called 
Kevfias\ Them they place in houfes appropriate or tem- 
ples which they^ call i^^r^/r(?W'c)^5 Where they woor- 
fhipjpraicjfing, ^nd make manic times offerings vnto 
thci:n, Infoiiie J^*irfor^W^4,wehauc fcene but on Kc^ 
i»as^ in fome two^and in'other fome threesThc common 
fort thinke them to be alfb gods, 

^ They belequealfothe^immortalitieof the foiilc, that 
after this Irfeas foonc asthcfoule is departed from the 
bodle according to the vvorkes it hath donCj it is eyrher 
carried to heauen the habitacle of godsy there to enioy 
pcrpetnaU blifle and happinellc^or els to a great pitte or 
hole, (vhich thty thinke tohee in the furtheft partes of 
their part of theworldetowardethe funnefet, there to 
oume contiilually;the place they call Pojogujfo. 

For the confirmationof this opinion, they tolde mcc 
twoftbrics of two^en that hadbeen lately dead and re- 
U&lc^ againcpthc one happened but few yetes before o ur 
CQinming into the countreyofa wicked man which ha- 
Mitigbecnc dead and buried, the next day the earth of 
l^cgrauebceing feene tomoue, was taken vp againe; 
Who made dcclarauon where his foule had beene^ that 

E 3. is 

c/df hkji^ndtrue report 

is to faie very nccrcentringinto Pofogtifoyhzd nototit of 
the godifaucd bim & gaue him leaue to retgrnc againc, 
;and teach bis friends what they fhould doc toaiioS that 
tcmblc place of torment. 

The other happened in the fame yecre wee were 
there, but in a towne that was thirecfcore miles from vs, 
and it wastoldemeeforftraungenewes that otic bec- 
ing dead, buried and taken vp againc as the firft, (hewed 
that altliough hiff bodie had lien dead in the graue, 
yethisfoule wasaliue,^nd hadtrauailedfarrein along 
broadewaic, onboth fides whereof gre we moft deli- 
cate and pleafaunttrceSjbearing more rare and cxc^t 
lent friijtcs theneuer heehad feene before or was able 
to cxprcflTe , and at length came to moft braue and 
fairchoufes5necre which hee met his father , that had 
becne dead before, who gaue him great charge to goc 
backe againe and fhew his friendcs what good they were 
to doe to enioy the pleafures of that place, which when 
he had done he fhould after come againe. 

What fubtilty foeucr be in the mroafjces and PrieftcSi 
this opinion worketh (b much in manie of the common 
andfimple fort of people that it maketh them haue great, 
refpeft to their Gouernours, and alfo great care what 
they do^to auoid torment after dcath,and to enioy blifle; 
although notwithftanding there is puniflimcnt ordained 
for malcfa^lours^as fteaIers,whoremoongers,and othet 
fortes of wicked doers , fomc punifhcd with death,fomc 
with forfeitures, fome with beating, according to the 
greatncs of the faftes. 

And this is the fumme of their religio,\vhIch I learned 
by haumg fpecial familiarity with fomc of their prieftes. 
VVhcrein they were not fo fure grounded , nor gaue 
filch crcdite to their traditions and florics but through 


of the ner^ found UndofVirgmU. 

tonUerfing with vs they were brought into grcatdoubts 
of their pvvnCjand no finall admiration of ours,with car- 
neft defire in many, to leamc more than we had meancs 
for want of pcrfcdl vttcrance in their language to c^- 

Moft thingcs they fawc with vs^ as Mathematical! 
inftrumcntSjIca compafles, the vertue of the loadftone 
in drawing yron, a perfpeftiuc glafic whereby was 
fhewed manie ftrangc fightes, burning glades, wildc- 
fire woorkes, gunties ^ bookes ^Iwriting and reading, 
ipring clocks that fccme to goc of themfelues, andma- 
iiie other thinges that wee had,wercfo ftraungevnto 
them, and (b fan*c exceeded their capacities to compre- 
hend the reafon andmeanes how they {hould be made 
and done, that they thought they Were rather the works 
©fgodsthenofmcn,otattheIeaftWifc they had bin gi- 
Ucn and taught vs of the gods. Which made manie of 
them to haue fiidh opinion of vs^as that if they knew not 
the truethfofgod and religion already ,it was rather to be 
had from vs^ whom God fofpeciallyloued then from a 
people that were they found themfelues to 
Cein comparifon of vs .Whereupon greater credite was 
giucn vnto that wcfpake of concerning fuch matters, v. 

Manic times andincuery townc where I came, ac- 
IcordingasI was able, I made declaration of the con- 
tcntes of the Biblej that therein was fetfoorth the true 
and onelic GOD, and his mightie woorkes, that 
therein was contayncd the true do(arine of faluation 
through Chrift, with manic partiailarities of Mira- 
cles and chicfc poyntcs of religion, as I was able then 
to vtter, and thought fittc for the time. And al- 
tthougb I told tbcm the booke materially & of it felf was 
notjoEamcfuch vcrtuc*a5lthought they did concciuc, 

£4^ but 

t4 hrl^^dtrHe report 

but oncly the dotarinc therein Gonta:inc4 yet wouldnio* 
ny be glad to touch it^ to embrace it^to kiffe it, to hold it 
to their brefts and heades, and ftroke onerdl their bodic 
with itsto flicwe their hungrie^eCrcpf that: knowledge 
which was fpoken of. 

The jviroatts with whom we dwelt called whgwAy and 
irsany of his people would be glad many times to be wich 
vs at our praicrs,and many times call vpon vs both in hfs 
owne towne, as al(b in others whither he fometiiiies ac- 
companied vsjto pray and fing Pfalmes; hoping thereby 
to bee partaker of thefameeftedtes which wee by that 
meancs alfo expefted* 

Twife this wiroam was fo grieuoufly ficke that he was 
Ilketodie, andasheelaielanguifliing, doubting of anic 
helpe by his ownepricftcsj and thinking he was in fireli. 
daungerforoffendingvs and thereby our god, /cnt for 
fome of vs to praie and bee a meanes to our God that it 
would pleafe him either that he might Hue or after death 
idwcll with him in blifle, fb like wife wer^ the requeftes of 
nianie others in the like cafe. 

On a time. alfo when their corne began to wither by 
reafon of a drouth which happened extraordinarily, fea- 
ring that it had come topafle by reafon that in foroc 
thing they had difpleafed vs,many woulde come to vs &: 
defirc vs to praie to our God of England, that he would 
preferue their cornc,proftiifing that \yhen it was ripe we 
alfo fhouldbc partakers of the fmite. 

There could at no tinle hajf)pca any flrangc fickncffe^ 
lofres,hurt^s,orany other crofTe vnto them, but that 
they would imputeto vsthccaufe or meancs therof for 
offending or not pleafing vs. 

One other rare and flrange accident, leauing others, 
will I mention before I ende,v/hich mooucd the whole 


of the ntPfifomdUndof Virginia, 

countrcythat cither knew orhcardcofv$5 tohaucvs in 
v/ondertuU admiration. 

There was no townc where we had any fubtile dcuif^. 
praftifcdagainftvs^vveleauingicvnpunifhcdor not re- 
wenged (becaufe wee (ought byall meancs poffiblc t<^ 
win them by gentleneffc) But that within aicwdaycs af- 
ter our departure from euerie fiich towne, the people 
began to die very faft^andmany in fhort fpace; in fome 
townes about twentiejin fornefonrtiejin fome fixtie, & 
in one fixe fcore, which in triieth was very manic in re- 
iped of their numbers . This happened in ho place 
that wee couldc Icame but where wee had bene, where 
they vfed fome pradifeagainftvs^ and after fuch times 
The difeafealfo fo ftrangCjthat they neither knew what 
it wasj nothowtacureit$ thelikc by report of the oldeft 
men in the countrey neuer happened before, time out of 
mindc. A thing Ipecially obterued by vsas'alfo by the 
uaturall inhabitants themfelues. 

Infomuch that when fome of the inhabitantcs which 
were our friends & cfpecially the mroans wingina, had ob 
ferued fiich effe<5l:s infoure or fiue towns to follow their 
wicked pra(Skifes , they weri pcrfwaded that it was the 
worke of our God through our meanes, and that wee by 
liim might kil and flaie whom wee would without wea- 
pons and not comcneerc them* 

And thereupon when it had happcaied that they had 
Vftdcrftanding tliatany of their eftemies had abuicd v5 
m our iourney es, hearing that wee had wrought no re- 
itcngc with our weapons5& fearing vpon fomccaufethc 
matter (houldfb reft; did come andinn:eatevs that wcr 
ivouldc bee a meancs to our God that they as others 
thatbad dealt ill with v^ might In Kke fort die-, alka- 
ging bowc much it would be for our crcditeand profited. 

as alfo theirs;and hoping furthermore that wc would do 
famuchattheirrequeftsinrefpP<3:ofthefi:ie.ndfhip wc 

Whofccotr^atiesr although wee (hewed that they 
were viigodlie^^ffirming that our God would not fub- 
icd him Iclfe to aniefuchpraiers and requeues of men: 
that in<leede all thinges haue beene and were to be done 
according to his good picafure as hcJbad ordained : and 
that wetolliew ourfelues his true fcruants ought rather 
to make petition for the contrarie, that they with them 
might liuetogedier with vs, bee made partakers of his 
truth & ferue him in righteoufiiessbut notwitftanding in 
fuch fortjthaj: refene that as all other thinges^to bee 
doneaccordingtohisdiuinewUl&pleafurCj and as by 
his vvifedome he had ordained to be beft. 

Yet becaufe the efFeS fell our fo fodainly and fhortly 
after according to their defires^they thought ncucrthe- 
lefle it came to pafle by our meanes^and that wcin vfing 
fuch /peeches vnto them did but diflemble the matter, 
and therefore came vnto vs to giue vs thankes in tbcifi 
manner that although wee fatisfied them, not in pro- 
mife^yet in decd'es and effed we had fulfilled their dt- 

This maruelous accident in all the countric wrought 
fo ftrahge opinions of vs^that fome people could not tcl 
whether to think vs gods dr men^ and the rather becaufe 
chat all the fpace of their fickneffe^there was no man of 
ours knowne to die, or that was IpecialJy fickc :. tliey no- 
ted alfo that wehad no women araongftvs, neither that 
we did care for any of theirs. 

Some therefore were of opinion that wee were not 
borne of women^and therefore not mortallj-but that wee 
were men of an old generation many y ecres paft then n^ 


of the nerfifoundlmdof Virginia. 
fen agalne to ihimortalitic. 

Some wouldc like wife fccme to prophcfic that there 
were more of our generation ye^ to come, to killtheirs 
and take their places, as fome thought the purpofc was 
by that which was already done. 

Thofe that were immediatlyto come after vs they i- 
niagined to be in the aire,yet inuifible & without bodies, 
& that they by our intreaty & for the loue of vs did make 
thepeopletodicinthatfortasthcydidby (hooting in- 
iiifibie bullets into them. 

lb confirme this opinion their phifitionstoexcufc 
their ignorancein curing the difeafe, would not be afha- 
med to fay jbut^ameftly make the fimple people bcleue, 
that the firings of blood that they fucked out of the fickc 
bodics^wcre the firings whetewithall the inuifible bul- 
lets were tied and caft. 

Some alfo thought that wc (hot them our felucs out 
of our pieces from the place where we dwelt, and killed 
the people ifi any foch towne that had of&nded vsas wc 
liftedjho w farre diftant from vs foeuer it were* 

And other fome faide that it was the fpeciaH woorkc 
of God for our fekes, as wee our felues haue caufc in 
feme forte to thinke no lefle , whatfoeuer fome doe or 
•BiaieimagTnctothe contrarie, fpecially (bme Aftro- 
logers Tcnowingof the Eclipfc of the Sunne which wee 
fawthc fame yeere before in our voyage thy thcr ward, 
which vnto them appeared very terrible. And alfo of a 
Comet which beganne tosppeare but a fewdaies be- 
fore the beginning of the faid ficknefle. But to conclude 
them:fromt)exng the fpeciaJl caufes pf fo fpcciall an ac- 
cident, there are farther rcafons then Ithinke fit at this 
prefent to bee ^kadgcd. 

Th^fc theitopittions I hauc fct downc the raoreai 

F,2, large 

A briefeanitrue report 

large that it may appcarc vnto you that there is good 
hope they may be brought through difcrect dealing and 
gouecneracnt to the imbracing ot the trueth^ and conle- 
quently to hpnour^obey/eare and loue vs. 

And although fome of ourcompanie towardcsthc 
cnde of theyeare^ftiewed themfelues too fierce, in flay- 
ing fome ot the peot)le,in fome towns, vpon caufes that 
on our part^might c^fily cnougbhaue been borne with- 
all: yet notwithftanding becaule it was on their part iufU 
Iv dcferued, the alteration of their opinions generally & 
torthemoftpart concerning vs is the lefle to bee doub- 
ted* And whatfqeuer els they maylje, by carefulnefle of 
our felues neede nothing at all to be feared, 

ThebcftfteuertheleflcinthisLasinall anions befides 
is to be endeuoured and hoped^Sc of the worft that may 
happen notice to bee taken with confideration, and a$ 
much as may be efchewed. 

The Condujion^ 

NOw I haue as Jhopc made relation not of Ibfewe 
and fraal things but that the countrey of meathat 
are indifferent & weldifpofcd maiebe fufliciently 
liked : If there were no more knowen then I haue menti- 
oned, which doubtleflc and in great reafon is nothing 
to that which remaincth tobee difcouered, neither the 
foilc^nor commodities. Aswe haue reafon fo to gather 
by the difiFcrcce we found rn our trauails j for although all 
which Ihaue before Q)oke of,haue bin difcouered & ex"- 
perimented not far fro the fca coaft where was our abode 
& moft of our trauailing : yet (bmtimes as wemade our 
iourncics farther into the maine and countrey^ we found 
the foylc to bee fatters the trees greater and to g-owe 


of the nswfoundUndofUirginia. 

thinner; the grounde more firme and deeper mouldj 
inore and larger champions; finer grafle and as good as 
cu^rwefawany inEn^ands in fome places rockie and 
farremore high and hillie ground; more plentie of their 
fruites; more abundance of beaftes; themore inhabited 
with peopIc,and of greater pollicie & larger dominions, 
with greater townes and houfes. 

Why may wee not thenlookc for in good hope from 
theinner parts of more and greaterplentie, as wellofo. 
ther things, as ofthofe which wee hauc alreadic difco- 
uered?Vnto the Spaniardes happened the like in difco* 
ucring the maine of the Weft Indies. The maine alfo of 
this countrey of r/rj/^/^jex tending (bme wayes (b many 
hundreds of leagues^as otherwife then by the relation of 
the inhabitants wee haucmoft certaine knowledge ofi 
where yet no Chriftian Prince hath any pofleffion or 
dealingjCannot but yeeld many kinds of excellent com- 
XQodities^which we in our difcouerie haue not yet feenc. 

What hope there is els to be gathered of the nature 
of the climatc^being anfwcrable to the Hand oilofon^z 

land oiChwa^PerJia^laryy the Ilandes oiCjffrus and Cartefy^ 
the South parts o( Greece y Italj ^ and Spaif7ey and of many 
other notable and famous countreis, becaufelmeanc 
not to be tedious,! leauc to your owne confideration. 

Whereby alio the excellent temperature of the ayre 
there at all feafbns, much warmer then ih England, and 
neuer (b violently hot,as fometimes is vnder & between 
the Tropikes,ornere them; cannot beevnknowne vnta 
you without fartherrelation. 

For the holfomneffe thereof I needetofaybutthus 
much: that for all the want of prouifion,asfirIl of Eng-> 
li(h viduallj excepting for twentie daies, wee Uucd only 
by drinking water and by the viiauall of the countrey, of 

F 3, which 

Ahriefc and truere^on 

which foirjc forts were very ftraungc vnto vs, and might 
hauc bene thought tohaue altered our temperatures ia 
fuch fort as to haue brought vs into fomc grceuous and 
dangerous difcafcs.'fecodly thewant of Englifti meanes, 
for the taking of beaftes^ fifhe, and foule, which by th<2 
help e only of the inhabitants and their meaner, coulde 
notbeefofuddentyandeafilyprouidedfor vs,norin fo 
great numbers& quantities, nor of that choife as other-« 
wife might hauc bene to our better (atisfadtton and con- 
tentment. Some want alfo wee had of clothes. Further- 
more^inallour trauailcs which were moft fpccialfand 
often in the time of winter, our lodging was in the open 
aire vpon the grounde. And yet I fay for all this, there 
were but foure of our whole^company (being onehundr 
drcd and eight ) that died all the yecre and that but at 
the latter ende thereof and vpon none of the aforcfaide 
caufes. For all foure efoecially three were feeble, weake, 
and fickly perfons beroreeuerthcy came thither, and 
thofc that kncwe them much marueyled that they Xx,^ 
uedfolong beeing in that cafe, or had aduentured m 

Seeing therefore the ayrc there is fo temperate and^ 
holfome, the foylefo fertile and ycelding fuch commo- 
dities as I haue before mentioned, the voyage alfo thi* 
iher to and fro beeing fufficicntly experimented, tohefe 
perfourmcd thrife a yeere with eafe and at any feafoa 
thereof: And the dealing o(SirtvaterRaUtgh fo libeTall 
in large giuing and graunting landetherc, asisalreadic 
knowen,wichmany helpes and furtherances els : (The 
leaft that hee hath graunied hath bcenc fine hundred 
acres toaman onely for the aduenture of hisperfon): 
I hope there remains no caufc whcrby the a<9tioa Ihoidd 


of the new found land of Virginia. 

If thatthofc which (hall thither trauaile to inhabitd 
and plant bcc but rcafonaWy prouided forthefirftycrc 
as thofe are which were tranfportfed'thc laftjandbcc- 
ing there doe vfe but that diligence and care as isrc- 
quifitc^andas they may with cafe : There is no doubt 
but for the time following they may hauc victuals that 
is es;cellentgood and plentie enough, fome more Eng- 
Kfhe fortes of cattaile alfo hereafter,asfome haucbenc 
before, and are there yet remaining, may and fhall bcc 
God willing thither tranlported : Solikcwifeour kindc 
of fruites^rootes ^and hearbcs may bee.there planted 
and fowedjas fome haue bene alrcadie, and proue wel. 
And in (horttime alfo they mayraife df thole fortes of 
commodities which I bauefpokcn of as (hall both en- 
rich themfelucs , as alfo others that (hall deale with 

And this is all the fruites of our labours^thatlhauc 
thought ncceflary to aducrtife you of at this prcfent: 
what els conccrncth the nature and manners of the 
inhabitants o( P^rgwia :T!hc number with the particu- 
larities of the voyages thither made^ and of the ani- 
ons of fiich that bauc bene by SfrfVaterRale/gh therein 
and there imployed^many worthy to bee rem^mbredj 
as of the firlldilcouerersof theCountrcy : of ourGe- 
nerall for the time Sir Richard Greinuile\ and after his 
departure, of our Gouernour there Mafter-R^/tfL4»f; 
with diucrs other direfted and imployed vnder theyr 
gouemcmcnt : Of the Captayncs and Matters of the 
voyages made (incc for tranfportationjof thcGoucr- 
nour and afliftants of thofe alredie tranfported,as of ma- 
ny pcrfons,accidcnts,ahd thinges els, I haue ready in a 
dHcourfc by it fdf in manaof a Chronidc according to 


A briefi^nd true report 

tothe eourfc of times, ancj when time fhall bee thougtit 
conuementfhall bealfo publifhcdr 

Thusreferring^my rclatipa to yoqrfaqourablc coa* 

thruftionsjiexpeainggood fucceueof the aftion^from 

him which is to be acknowledged the authour and go- 

ucrnour not only of this but of all things els, I 

take my leaue of you3tMs raoncth of 

February. I *i%Z. 


Bi^.fag. I Jin. lO.foTfTangomkkst^'figneade^mgomoe^ 
C9/i,*pag.2Uf^»2i.forygodfnfafie»reade^oodm tafte. 
Tic rejt ifafy be the dipre$te Rentier maj etfjilj tim&jdm 

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